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How To Cite

MLA Books--9th Edition


Works Cited


Book, one author


Skorman, Stuart. Confessions of a Serial Entrepreneur: Why I Can’t Stop Starting Over. Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2007.

(Skorman 165)

Book, two authors

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

(Dorris and Erdrich 24)

Book, three or more authors

Montgomery, Williams, et al. The Quest for Aztec Gold. Penguin, 1994.

(Montgomery et al. 87)

Book, editor

Hay, Jeff T., editor. The Fall of the Berlin Wall. Greenhaven Press, 2010.

(Hay 27)

Book, two or more editors

Holland, Merline, and Rupert Hart-Davis, editors. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde. Henry Holt, 2000.

(Holland, et al. 46)

Book, corporate author

Time-Life Books. Decade of Triumph, the 40s. Time-Life Books, 1999.

(Time-Life Books 104)

Anonymous author/no author given

Primary Colors, a Novel of Politics. Random House, 1996. (Primary Colors 14)

MLA Articles (Magazine, Journal, Newspaper)--9th Edition

Source Works Cited In-Text

Article in Magazine (print)

Ottesen, Carole. “Prophet of the Prairie.” The American Gardener, 15 Sept. 2010, pp. 24-28.

(Ottesen 25)

Article in Magazine (database)

Datnow, Amanda, and Lea Hubbard. "Getting it right. (Letters: feedback)." Psychology Today, vol. 35, no. 2, Mar.-Apr. 2002, pp. 6+. Gale In Context: Biography, Accessed 1 Aug. 2022.

(Stacey 4)

Article in Magazine (online)

Moore, Tristana. “Did Negligence Kill Knut the Polar Bear?”, 22 Mar. 2011,,8599,2060743,00.html.


Article in Newspaper (print)

Boyle, John. “Volvo’s Exit Ripples in Community.” Asheville Citizen-Times, 17 Mar. 2011, p. A1.

(Boyle A1)

Article in Newspaper (online)

Chavez, Karen. "Mount Mitchell: State's First Park Growing, Poised for Future." The Asheville Citizen Times 25 Aug. 2016


Article in Journal (print)

Howe, Barbara J. “On Stage and in Class: Women Artists in Mid-19th Century Wheeling.” Appalachian Journal, vol. 37, no. 3/4, 2010, pp. 184-209.

(Howe 201)

Article in Journal (online, no page numbers)

Perkins, Clarence. “The Wealth of the Knight’s Templar in England and the Disposition of It After Their Dissolution.” The American Historical Review, vol. 15, no. .2, 1910.


Article in Journal (database)

Langhamer, Claire. "Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England." Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi: 10.1017/S0018246X06005966.

(Langhamer 176)


MLA Dictionaries & Encyclopedias--9th Edition

Source Works Cited In-Text


“Muster.” Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1999.


TV Show

(Hulu, Netflix, Google Play)

“Slapsgiving.” How I Met Your Mother, season 3, episode 9, CBS, 19 Nov. 2007. Netflix,


Film or Movie

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro, Polygram, 1995.

(The Usual Suspects)

Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800, Museo del Prado, Madrid.



MLA Citation Style Formatting Tips

  • Use Hanging Indent citations [in Word, highlight text, right click, select Paragraph, and choose “Hanging” under Indentation: ]
  • Footnotes may be used in lieu of In-Text citation, depending on your instructor’s preferences.  
  • List your references or sources used beginning on a new page, not following the conclusion paragraph(s).
  • May use Works Cited, Bibliography, or Literature Cited as the page heading.  However Works Cited is most common for MLA style.
  • Center the heading (Works Cited, Bibliography, etc.) at the top of the Works Cited page.
  • List references alphabetically by author/editor last name.  If no author/editor is present, alphabetize by title of the work, omitting initial A, An, or The.
  • Double space citations [in Word, highlight text, right click, select Paragraph, and choose “Double” under Spacing: ]
  • Double space between each reference listed.